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Clinical immunology is the research of diseases acquired the disorders in the immune system. The disorders may be fail or aberrant action of immune system and sometimes due to malignant growth of cellular, molecular components of immune system, hypersensitivities like asthma, allergic diseases & immune system failure. Allergy is the condition of hostile reaction of immune system towards any foreign agent. Allergy is of various types depending on the allergen (causative agent) and the diagnosis and treatment for each type vary.
- Viral Immunology
- Immune Genetics
- Autoimmune diseases
The Infection incursion of foreign organism on a host body for its growth and multiplication is entitled as infection. The infection can lead to infectious diseases/ contagious disease/ communicable disease. The infection can be caused by any infectious elements and their toxins causing many immune reactions such as allergy, inflammation so on. Immune or allergic reactions arise upon infection due to the part of Host immune system to maintain immunity in the body. The infectious agents as it may be bacteria, virus, fungus, parasites, protozoans etc
- Effects of infectious disease
- Infectious agents and route of transmission
- Infectious diseases: diagnosis & treatment
- Cellular and hormonal immunity
Allergy is one of the most adverse immune reaction faced worldwide by people which is next accompanied by inflammation Allergies result from an overreaction of the immune system. The immune system safeguards the body from attacker such as viruses and bacteria that can cause diseases. If a person suffering from allergy, their immune system respond to a harmless element as though it was harmful. A subtance that causes the immune system to overreact is called an “allergen.”
- pressure in the eyes
- urinary retention
- cardiovascular disease
- kidney or liver problems
Seasonal allergies are maybe called "hay fever" or seasonal allergic rhinitis. These allergy symptoms occur during certain period of the year, usually when trees, grasses, and weeds discharge tiny pollen particles into the air to fertilize other plants. This allergic reaction may cause itchy, watery eyes, sneezing and other similar symptoms. Allergic rhinitis happens seasonally or year-round. Diagnosis require history-taking, examine the nasal passages and may sometimes skin testing. The symptoms include of sneezing, runny nose and red, watery and itchy eyes.
- exposure to allergy triggers
- Post nasal drip
- bee venom or pet dander
- food that doesn't cause a reaction
Immunization is a global health and development winning story, saving millions of lives each year. Vaccines reduce risks of getting of disease by working with your body’s natural defences to build protection. When you get a boosters, your immune system responds. The procedure that takes place in the body right away after the vaccination is called immunisation. Immunisation works by exhilarating the immune system to fight against particular diseases. If a vaccinated person comes in touch with these diseases, the immune system will react more effectively.
- Live-attenuated vaccines
- Inactivated vaccines
- conjugate vaccines
- Birth vaccines
Corona viruses a type of virus that causes respiratory disorder such as the common cold to more acute diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). Majority of people with immune deficiencies and those on immune-suppressing drugs are immune compromised, putting them at a higher risk of respiratory diseases. The most common symptomatic primary immunodeficiency in adults is common element immunodeficiency. Affected patients do not establish an adequate humoral react to community-acquired viral illnesses, and recent researches have found evidence that these patients are more susceptible to severe SARS-CoV-2 infections. The injection of COVID-19 convalescent plasma could be varying in treatment technique in this case.
- Primary immunodeficiency
- COVID-19 convalescent plasma
- Genetic defects
- Covid-19 Alpha variant
The immune system is not fully grown at birth and therefore we are at an high risk of infection. At the same time, the act of being born – moving from the protected environment of the womb to the wider world, exposes us to a wide range of pathogens that we never encountered and have no immunity to protection against. To supplement this period of immune immaturity and to make lower risk of infection, the mother transfers passive protection to the child, mainly in the form of antibody. The immune react in early stage is decreases when compared to adults. The diminishing in immune response leads to increased susceptibility to pathogens and to decreased responses to vaccines which are effective in adults. In paediatric immunology child’s immune system impairment, that leads to allergies, autoimmune disorders, primary immune deficiency diseases and acquired deficiency illness.
The causes for immune system malfunctions are:
- Acquired immune deficiency
- Autoimmune disorder
- Over-active immune system
- Primary immune deficiency
Food allergy is an unusual immune response or an uncommon immune system response to food. Familiar Allergic foods involve cow's milk, peanuts, eggs, shellfish, fish, tree nuts, soy, wheat and rice. The symptoms may involve itchiness, swelling of the tongue, vomiting, diarrhoea, hives, trouble in breathing, or low blood pressure. This regularly occurs within minutes to several hours of coming into contact. When the symptoms are verse, it is known as anaphylaxis. A drug allergy is the abnormal reaction of your immune system to a medication.
- Skin rash
- Itchy skin or eyes
- Swelling in the mouth and throat
Immunotherapy is a type of protective treatment for allergies and other immunological diseases such as asthma, rhinitis, and cancer. Cancer immunotherapy is used to cure cancer, allergy immunotherapy is used to cure allergies, Asthma allergy immunotherapy is used to treat allergic asthma, food allergy immunotherapy is used to resolve food allergies, and peanut allergy immunotherapy is recommended to treat peanut allergy. It can be involved in a different ways, including activation, suppression, helminthic, subcutaneous, sublingual, and adjuvant immunotherapy.
- Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
- Transplant complications
- Immune disorders
- Post transplantation care
Diagnostic immunology, also called as immunodiagnostics, recommend the procedures and techniques used to diagnose allergies, asthma, and immunological illnesses such as AIDS, Rheumatoid arthritis, Multiple Sclerosis, and Type 1 diabetes. Assay kits, devices, and assistance are all use in allergy diagnosis. A few of the assays are Immunoassays, Immuno fluorescence, Immune fixation, and Immune adsorption. Immunoassay analyzers, luminometers, ELISA analyzers, cytometers, MHC multimer, and other articles are among the instruments are used. Other diagnostic procedure includes histology and immunology tests, molecular studies, and immune system evaluation.
- Antigen-antibody reaction
- Infectious diseases
- Immune-mediated diseases
- Comparative Immunology
Neuroimmunological infections encompass a large variety of conditions that invade and affect the nervous system. In spite of advances in therapy and the development of early stage detection technologies, several of these conditions can cause acute, chronic and even life dangerous problems for those who affected by them.
Bioinsprired nanoscaffolds for medicines delivery and neurotherapy is a substance that reduces inflammation in blemishes nervous tissues and may help in treating spinal cord injuries and other neurological infections
- Fungal infections
- Parasitic infections
- Prion Diseases
- Brain abscess
Cancer immunotherapy is the inducement of the immune system to cure cancer, enhancing the immune system's natural capacity to fight against the diseases. It is a requisition of the fundamental study of cancer immunology and a growing internal medicine of oncology. Immunotherapy is a part of cancer treatment that helps your immune system fight against cancer. The immune system support your body to fight on infections and other diseases. It is powered by white blood cells and organs and tissues of the lymph system. Immunotherapy is a part of biological therapy. Biological therapy is a part of treatment that use substances made with living organisms to cure cancer.
- Vascular Image Probes
- Different Types of Therapies in Cancer
- Safety Concerns in Cancer Immunotherapy
Immune disorders caused by the deficiency, failure or aberrant action of immune system or the malignant tumour growth in the immune system are immune disorders. They are many type’s namely immunodeficiency diseases (primary and secondary), Allergies and Autoimmune illness. They are acquired by agents like Foods, Latex, Environmental factors and Toxins interacting with proteins, Medications, Allergens, Genetics, Pathogenic infections, Stress. Allergy and inflammatory illnesses are immune disorders effected by over reaction of the immune system, the diagnosis, prevention and treatment methods for all types widening the research in drugs and immunology fields. So far the effect and treatment of many of these disorders is not discovered.
- Multiple sclerosis
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Addison's disease.
A deadly allergic reaction effected by exposure to an allergen like venom, food, or medication is called as anaphylaxis. Most cases are injured by a bee sting or eating foods that are known to effect allergies, like peanuts or tree nuts. Anaphylaxis results in dangerous symptoms, including a rash, shock, low pulse, which is known as anaphylactic shock. Asthma is a preserving inflammatory disorder of the airways of the lungs. Asthma is generally effected by a combination of genetic and environmental elements. Environmental elements involve exposure to dist and allergens. It is characterized by different and recurring symptoms, reverse airflow obstruction, and easy triggered bronchospasms.
There are 3 types of asthma
- Nocturnal asthma
- Exercise-induced asthma
- Allergic asthma
Skin and Eye are surface barriers of the Human body. Skin irritations can be caused due to immune system illness, medications and infections. Any foreign substance can target the immune system upon contacting itself with the surface protecters like skin, eye etc. Upon contact with dust, allergy and dust allergy can arise in the eye or skin. Hypersensitivity of immune response due to foreign substance aggravating the skin and conjunctiva effect skin allergy (Atopic dermatitis or contact dermatitis) and Eye allergy (Ocular allergy) respectively. Conjunctiva is the sensitive tissue covering the eye and the eyelid and eye allergy or the ocular allergy is also termed as Allergic. Conjunctivitis as an allergy firstly effect the conjunctiva.
- Allergic Conjunctivitis
- Allergic Rhinitis
- Types of skin Allergy
- Plant Allergy
An allergic reaction is the proteins develop in an animal's skin cells, saliva or urine is veterinary allergy or Allergology. The pet hair, fur or proteins existing in a pet's dander, skin flakes, saliva and urine can cause allergic reaction or cause asthma disorder in some people. There are several case histories on pet allergies. Pet allergy is mostly common towards cats and dogs as they are the most seen pets worldwide. Cat allergy immunotherapy is widely used treatment by cat lovers. Some histroric have been seen where allergy reactions are effect to venom, bite and sting of insects and also to enzyme found in animal products where the food allergy comes into effect too. The symptoms may differ among people ranging from sneezing, runny or stuffy nose, skin rash or hives to shortness of breath and wheezing, Facial pain, Coughing, chest tightness.
- Allergens in canine medicine
- Cysteine endopeptidase
- Cat allergy
Immunological techniques involve in experimental techniques to research immune system & the methods to generate immune reagents, which can be used as experimental elements. Most of the immunological methods relate to substance & use of antibiotics to find proteins in biological samples. Allergy therapeutics is the international commercial biotechnology substance use in the treatment & diagnosis of allergic disease, e.g. immunotherapy shorts. Production of immunoglobulin, immune stimulants, and immune suppressive elements are in much demand due to the increasing allergic conditions, which treat in enhancing or suppressing the immune system & fights on infections, prevent & cure certain diseases.
- Challenges in allergic diseases
- Methods of prevention
- Therapic Approuches
- Prevention of allergic diseases
The science is being advancing the treatment of all aspects of medication. A new therapies are introduced sublingual immunotherapy, does not require frequent doctors' appointments or supervision. These drugs are the mainstay for treating the sneezing, runny nose, and itchy eyes that come with allergies. Antihistamines also restore hives and other symptoms of some food allergies. Decongestants help relief the stuffy, blocked-nose symptoms of nasal congestion. Short-term use of decongestants usually provides good symptom relief and can make them feel better quickly
- Vaccines shots
- Allergy shorts
Each immunological element has its own manufacturing and operating mechanisms. To get a better understanding of the immune system and find counter medicine for any immunological disorders researchers should look into the molecular and cellular concepts involved in these systems. Multiple mediators, cell types, and lymphocytes/interleukins pathways are engage in the molecular and cellular processes that intermediate allergic inflammation. Allergies or allergic disorders are caused by the immune system's hypersensitivity in response to environmental aspects. Rhinitis, inflammation, allergic urticaria, anaphylaxis, conjunctivitis, angioedema, and atopic eczema are some of the symptoms. Therapies, vaccinations, antihistamines, decongestants, moisturising lotions (emollients), and steroid drugs are used to cure a variety of conditions.
- Immunity and vaccines
The market for allergy diagnostics and immunotherapeutics is assumed to grow dramatically, according to various industrial eminent, due to the increase of frequency of allergic diseases. As a result of drastic changeof lifestyle habits, pollution, and urbanisation, illness such as asthma and food allergies are becoming more prevalent, putting pressure on hospitals, diagnostic labs, and healthcare companies around the world to develop cost-effective, sensitive, and accurate diagnostic elements and therapeutics. Assay tools, immunoassay analyzers, luminometers, and ELISA analyzers, which are followed by inhaled allergens, has boost up the allergy diagnostics market elements wise due to growing levels of environmental air pollution and the demand for faster, more efficient, and high range technologies. There are many nations that account for allergy researches and market shares include North America, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East.
- Analysis & Trends
- Anti-Inflammatory Diseases
- Therapeutic areas