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16th International Conference on Allergy and Clinical Immunology, will be organized around the theme “From Basic Immune Understanding to Latest Immunology Progressions”
Allergy 2021 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Allergy 2021
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Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a new infection and virulent respiratory disease occurs when virus-containing particles expired by an infected person, either respiratory droplets or aerosols effectuated by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an uncommon severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Although SARS-CoV-2 has a response for ACE2-expressing epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, patients with severe COVID-19 have symptoms of systemic hyper inflammation. The virus predominantly spreads between people through close contact and by means of respiratory droplets induced from coughs or sneezes and it mainly enters human cells by binding to the receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2.
Most common symptoms are:
- Track 1-1
- Track 1-2Fever
- Track 1-3Dry cough
- Track 1-4Tiredness
Inflammation is part of the aggravated biological response of body tissues to dangerous stimuli, like pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a defensive response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators. The main function of inflammation is to terminate the initial cause of cell injury, elute necrotic cells and tissues damaged from the inflammatory process, and initiate tissue repair. Inflammation may be either acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is the early response of the body to harmful stimuli. Prolonged inflammation is also known as chronic inflammation, leads to continuous shift in the cells present at the place of inflammation. The response of immune system to a foreign substance that is not harmful to your body is called Allergy. These foreign Particles are called allergens. Treatments for allergies include the reducing the use of known allergens and the use of medications like steroids and antihistamines.
The allergy symptoms include:
- Track 2-1Allergic rhinitis
- Track 2-2Conjunctivitis
- Track 2-3Hives
Immune system involves antibodies, white blood cells, mast cells, proteins and other substances fight against antigens (foreign substances). However, in susceptible people, the immune system can exaggerate when exposed to certain substances like allergens in the environment, foods, or drugs, which are not harmful in most people. The result is an allergic reaction. Allergic reactions are hyperactive responses of the immune system to generally non-toxic substances. When immune cells act against the allergenic protein, IgE antibodies are generated; this is homogenous to the immune system's reaction to foreign pathogens. The IgE antibodies recognize the allergenic proteins as harmful and instigate the allergic reaction. Severe allergic reactions results in following symptoms:
- Track 3-1Abdominal cramping or pain
- Track 3-2Heart palpitations
- Track 3-3Diarrhoea
The immune system is made up of cells, tissues, and organs that help the body to fight against infections and other diseases. The condition which affects the immune system or dysfunction of the immune system is called immune disorder. In some cases immune system becomes overactive; where the body attacks and damages its own tissues which is called autoimmune disease. Immune deficiency diseases lower the body's ability to fight invaders, causing inability to resist to infections.
These immune disorders can be distinguished in different ways:
- Track 4-1Depending on the components of the immune system affected
- Track 4-2When the immune system is overactive or underactive
- Track 4-3If the condition is congenital or acquire
Food allergy is an abnormal immune response or an unpleasant immune system reaction to food. Common Allergic foods involve cow's milk, peanuts, eggs, shellfish, fish, tree nuts, soy, wheat and rice. The symptoms may include itchiness, swelling of the tongue, vomiting, diarrhoea, hives, trouble breathing, or low blood pressure. This usually occurs within minutes to several hours of exposure. When the symptoms are severe, it is known as anaphylaxis. A drug allergy is the abnormal response of your immune system to a medication. Most people are allergic to Penicillin and other similar antibiotic drugs. Other common drugs found to cause allergic reactions include sulfa drugs, barbiturates, and anti-seizure drugs.
- Track 5-1Skin rash
- Track 5-2Itchy skin or eyes
- Track 5-3Swelling in the mouth and throat
Behavioural immunity that allow individual organisms to detect the possible presence of disease-causing parasites in their instant environment, and to seize in behaviours which prevent contact with those objects and individuals. The treatment using components of the immune system or antigens for immune disorders is called immunotherapy. Immunotherapy can activate or supress the immune system. Immunotherapies that activate the immune response are called activation immunotherapies. Immunotherapies that suppress the immune system are called suppression immunotherapies.
Immunotherapy is mainly used to treat:
- Track 6-1Allergies
- Track 6-2Autoimmune disorders
- Track 6-3Cancers
The study of diseases caused by disorders of the immune system is called Clinical immunology. It also includes diseases of other systems, where immune reactions play a major role in the pathology and clinical features. The diseases caused by immune disorders system is categorised into 2 types: Immunodeficiency and Autoimmunity. Immunodeficiency is the deficiency in which parts of the immune system stop to provide appropriate response and autoimmunity is where immune system attacks its own host's body.
Several other immune system disorders include hypersensitivities:
- Track 7-1Asthma
- Track 7-2Allergies
The study of factors responsible for the evolution of immune cells and organs in the body of organism is Developmental Immunology. The ability of body to react to antigens depends on a person's age, antigen type, maternal type and the zone where the antigen is present. Maternal factors also play a major role in the body’s immune response. At birth, immunoglobulin is usually present in maternal IgG. Because IgM, IgD, IgE and IgA cannot cross the placenta, and they are undetectable at birth. During adolescence, the human body undergoes various physical, physiological and immunological changes stimulated and mediated by hormones, of which the most significant in females is estrogen and, in males, is testosterone.
Immune system may be divided into two types:
- Track 8-1Innate immunity
- Track 8-2Adaptive immunity
The multi-disciplinary division of medicine that is complicated with understanding the part of the immune system in the evolution and development of cancer is called Cancer immunology the most well-known application is cancer immunotherapy, where it utilises the immune system as a treatment for cancer. Tumors may manifest tumor antigens that are validated by the immune system and may induce an immune response. These tumor antigens may be Tumor-specific antigen or Tumor-associated antigen. The antigens that are present in tumor cells are called Tumor-specific antigens. Tumor-associated antigens are present in healthy cells, sometimes they also occur in tumor cells.
Types of Immunotherapy treatment:
- Track 9-1Adoptive cell therapy
- Track 9-2Cancer vaccines
- Track 9-3Oncolytic virus therapy
Even though Corona virus has responsive stimuli for ACE2-expressing epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, systemic hyperinflammation is the severe symptom in patients with COVID-19. Systemic inflammation causes vasodilation, and allows inflammatory lymphocytic and monocytic infiltration of the lung and the heart. In particular, pathogenic GM-CSF-secreting T-cells were shown to correspond with the employement of inflammatory IL-6-secreting monocytes and severe lung pathology in COVID-19 patients. Infiltrates of lymphocytes have also been reported at autopsy. Organs are mainly affected by an inflammatory response in patients with lethal COVID-19.
- Track 10-1Systemic hyper inflammation
- Track 10-2Vasodilation
- Track 10-3Pneumonia
An allergic response causes itchy, watery eyes, sneezing and other similar symptoms. Allergic rhinitis is otherwise called as hay fever, and it is a type of inflammation in the nose that occurs when the immune system overreacts to allergens in the air. Allergic rhinitis occurs seasonally or year-round. Diagnosis implicates history-taking, examination of the nasal passages and sometimes skin testing. Allergic rhinitis is generally triggered by environmental allergens such as pollen, pet hair, dust, or mold. Inherited genetics and environmental exposures contribute to the development of allergies.
The characteristic symptoms of allergic rhinitis are:
- Track 11-1Rhinorrhoea
- Track 11-2Itching
- Track 11-3Nasal congestion
A life-threatening allergic reaction caused by exposure to an allergen like venom, food, or medication is known as anaphylaxis. Most cases are caused by a bee sting or eating foods that are known to cause allergies, like peanuts or tree nuts. Anaphylaxis results in series symptoms, including a rash, low pulse, and shock, which is known as anaphylactic shock. Asthma is a persisting inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs. Asthma is generally caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Environmental factors involve exposure to air pollution and allergens. It is characterized by varying and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and easily triggered bronchospasms.
There are 3 types of asthma
- Track 12-1Nocturnal asthma
- Track 12-2Exercise-induced asthma
- Track 12-3Allergic asthma
Vaccination is when a vaccine is delivered in the body. The process that takes place in the body immediately after the vaccination is called immunisation. Immunisation works by stimulating the immune system to fight against certain diseases. If a vaccinated person comes in contact with these diseases, the immune system will respond more effectively.
- Track 13-1Live-attenuated vaccines
- Track 13-2Inactivated vaccines
- Track 13-3Conjugate vaccines
The rare or typical immune response to a functioning body part is called an autoimmune disease. These diseases will have characteristic pathological effects that indicate them as an autoimmune disease. Such effects include damage or eradication of tissues where there is an abnormal immune response, altered organ growth, and altered organ function depending on the position of the disease Signs and symptoms may vary from one to other depending on the category of the disease. A person may have one or more than one autoimmune disease concurrently, and exhibit symptoms of multiple diseases.
- Track 14-1Coeliac disease
- Track 14-2Inflammatory bowel disease
- Track 14-3Multiple sclerosis
Oral Allergy Syndrome is a type of food allergy defined by aggregation of allergic reactions in the mouth and throat because of eating certain fruits, nuts, and vegetables which typically progress in adults with hay fever. OAS can occur in any time of the year but it is mostly occur during the pollen season. Individuals with OAS usually develop symptoms within minutes of eating the food. OAS sufferers will have allergic reactions that usually occur very rapidly, within minutes of eating a trigger food.
- Track 15-1Vomiting
- Track 15-2Cramps
- Track 15-3Ingestion
Allergic Contact Dermatitis is a form of contact dermatitis or eczema that is the indication of an allergic response caused by exposure with a substance called allergen; the other type is irritant contact dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis is otherwise called as contact allergy. Allergic contact dermatitis occurs some hours after contact with the respective allergen. The symptoms are more related to irritant contact dermatitis.
Symptoms may include:
- Track 16-1Itching
- Track 16-2Skin redness or Inflammation
- Track 16-3localized swelling
Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is a Latent treatment for food allergy. OIT is a rising treatment that is been utilized for food hypersensitivity It includes giving continuously increasing amounts of food allergen under medical supervision and continued daily depletion of the food allergen. Allergen immunotherapy, also known as desensitization, and OIT is a medical treatment for environmental allergies. Immunotherapy involves exposing people to huge amounts of allergen in order to change the immune system's response.
Types of Immunotherapy:
- Track 17-1Subcutaneous
- Track 17-2Sublingual
- Track 17-3Oral
- Track 17-4Transdermal
Like many other systems in the body, the immune system is not fully functional at birth and therefore we are at an increased risk of infection. The immune response in early life is diminished compared to adults. The depletion in immune response leads to increased susceptibility to pathogens and to decreased responses to vaccines which are effective in adults. In pediatric immunology child’s immune system malfunctions, that leads to allergies, autoimmune diseases, primary immune deficiency disorders and acquired deficiency disorders.
The causes for immune system malfunctions are:
- Track 18-1Acquired immune deficiency
- Track 18-2Autoimmune disorder
- Track 18-3Over-active immune system
- Track 18-4Primary immune deficiency
Molecular Allergology is an approach to allergy diagnostics, in which defined single allergen components are used for detection of specific IgE instead of traditionally used allergen extracts. The molecular components are highly purified proteins, which are either isolated directly from the allergen source or produced genetically. It is important to test a patient’s blood whenever an allergic response or severe reaction is suspected. Patients show wide range of varying symptoms and sensitization patterns against several allergens. There are two quantitative test methods for the antibody detection.
- Track 19-1Enzyme immunoassay
- Track 19-2Immunoblot
A hypersensitive response to proteins found in an animal's skin cells, saliva or urine is veterinary allergy or Allergology. The pet hair, proteins present in a pet's dander, skin flakes, saliva and urine can originate allergic reaction or cause asthma symptoms in some people. Pet allergy is mostly observed in cats and dogs as they are the most common pets worldwide. Some cases have been seen where hypersensitivity reactions are seen to venom, bite and sting of insects and also to proteins found in animal products where the food allergy comes into picture too. The symptoms may change from one individual to other individual ranging from sneezing, Runny or stuffy nose, Facial pain, Coughing, chest tightness, skin rash or hives to shortness of breath.
- Track 20-1Allergic Reactions to venom
- Track 20-2Parasite vaccines
- Track 20-3Veterinary viral vaccines
Increasing prevalence of allergic conjunctivitis and rhinitis is expected to drive the growth of global allergy treatment drugs market over the forecast period. Several allergy drugs are on the market. There are over-the-counter medications and prescription medications that reduce specific symptoms associated with allergic reactions. Ongoing scientific researches that define the mechanisms involved in allergic reactions will lead to more effective therapeutics and potentially allergy preventions. Treatments like immunotherapies which focus to minimize the reaction itself compared to minimize symptoms associated with the response, will likely be those that lead to full cures or preventions for allergies.
- Track 21-1Probiotics
- Track 21-2Immunotherapies